The Fergana Valley is a depression between the Tian Shan Mountain in the north and the Gissar-Alai range in the south.

Some 300 km long, up to 60-120 wide (the widest point is 170 km), forming an area covering 22,000 square kilometers. The western part of the valley is 330 meters above the sea level and the eastern part 1000 meters.

The Fergana Valley is naturally irrigated by two tributaries of the Syr Darya river and the most fertile part of Uzbekistan and hence the country’s agricultural heartland. Agricultural wealth historically gave rise to Silk Road trading towns, fortresses and the most importantly the XIX century Khanate of Kokand.